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Fluids and Electrolytes
|Minerals and Bone
Glucose—Blood sugar level, the most direct single test to uncover diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes, but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
Uric Acid—A by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys. Uric acid is an indicator of kidney function.
Bun (Urea Nitrogen)—Another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys. BUN is an indicator of kidney function.
Creatinine, Serum—An indicator of kidney function
Bun/Creatinine Ratio—Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine
Sodium—One of the major salts in the body fluid, sodium is important in the body’s water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
Potassium—Helps to control the nerves and muscles
Chloride—Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body’s electrolyte balance
Calcium—A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is important also for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting.
Phosphorous—Together with calcium, it is essential for healthy development of bones and teeth. Associated with hormone imbalance, bone disease and kidney disease. It is found mainly in bones and teeth. NOTE: a temporary drop in phosphorus level can be seen after a meal.
Iron, Serum—An abnormally low test result may indicate iron deficiency anemia.
Protein, Total—Together with albumin, it is a measure of the state of nutrition in the body.
Albumin—Serum one of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition
Globulin, Total—A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection fighting antibodies
Albumin/Globulin Ratio—Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin
Bilirubin, Total—A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
Alkaline Phosphatase—A body protein important in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)—An enzyme found mostly in the heart, muscles, liver, kidney, brain, and red blood cells. When an organ of the body is damaged, LDH is released in greater quantity into the blood stream.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)—an enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT)—an enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
GGT—Also known as Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, GGTP Formal name: Gamma-glutamyl transferase helps to detect liver and bile duct injury. Some doctors use it in all people they suspect of having liver disease, others use it only to help explain the cause of other changes or if they suspect alcohol abuse.
Cholesterol, Total—A sterol in the blood. Knowing your cholesterol may be as important as knowing your blood pressure. Elevated cholesterol is associated with an increasing risk of coronary heart disease.
HDL—Cholesterol High-density lipoproteins are believed to take cholesterol away from cells and transport it back to the liver for processing or removal. They have become known as the “good” cholesterol as persons with high levels of HDL may have less heart disease. Low HDL could be the result of smoking and lack of exercise.
LDL—Cholesterol Low-density lipoproteins contain the greatest percentage of cholesterol and may be responsible for depositing cholesterol on the artery walls. For that reason, they are known as the “bad” cholesterol.
Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio—Calculated by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL cholesterol. Ratio used by physicians in determining your relative risk for developing cardiovascular disease.
Triglycerides—Triglycerides are fat in the blood responsible for providing energy to the cells of the body. Triglycerides should be less than 400 mg/dl even in a non-fasting state.