Urinalysis, Complete with Microscopic Examination
Fasting Required: No

Specimen: Urine

Lab: Quest Diagnostics

Results: 1-2 business days
Note: Result turnaround times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

This test does not include a culture

Description: This panel is useful in the evaluation of conditions such as urinary tract infection, dehydration, and kidney stones. Dipstick urinalysis is important in accessing the chemical constituents in the urine and the relationship to various disease states. Microscopic examination helps to detect the presence of cells and other formed elements

Reference Ranges:

Color Yellow
Appearance Clear
Specific Gravity 1.001-1.035
pH 5.0-8.0
Glucose Negative
Bilirubin Negative
Ketones Negative
Occult Blood Negative
Protein Negative
Nitrite Negative
Leukocyte Esterase Negative
WBC =5 /HPF
RBC =2 /HPF
Squamous Epithelial Cells =5 /HPF
Transitional Epithelial =5 /HPF
Renal Epithelial Cells =3 /HPF
Bacteria None seen
Calcium Oxalate Crystals None or Few
Triple Phosphate Crystals None or Few
Uric Acid Crystals None or Few
Amorphous Sediment None or Few
Crystals None seen
Hyaline Casts None seen
Granular Casts None seen
Casts None seen
Yeast None seen

Color: Darker urine coloration can result from some medications, eating certain foods, blood in the urine, dehydration or fever
Appearance: Cloudy or turbid urine may be caused by bacteria, red blood cells, white blood cells, mucus or contaminants such as lotions or powders
Specific Gravity: The concentration of the urine sample. This is used to help evaluate the level of certain substances dissolved in the urine. Low specific gravity can be the result of ingesting large amounts of water prior to urination
pH: This is affected by the acid/base balance in the body. A pH which is too high or low can result in the formation of crystals in the urine which can lead to the development of kidney stones. pH can be adjusted through diet or medication.
Glucose: Glucose in the urine can be a sign of abnormally high blood sugar levels such as those caused by diabetes.
Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a waste product produced by the liver. Bilirubin in urine can be an early indicator of liver disease.
Ketones: Ketones are produced when the body metabolizes fat. They can indicate a number of conditions including starvation, a high protein/low carbohydrate diet, diabetes or frequent vomiting.
Occult Blood: Blood in the urine can indicate a number of conditions affecting the kidneys or urinary tract. It can also be caused by contamination from sources such as menstruation, hemorrhoids or vaginal bleeding.
Protein: The amount of albumin in the urine. Protein in the urine can be a sign of kidney disease or conditions affecting the urinary tract.
Nitrite: Nitrite in the urine is usually caused by bacteria which can indicate a urinary tract infection.
WBC: White blood cells in the urine is typically a sign of a bacterial urinary tract infection. It may also be caused by inflammation in the kidneys.
Red Blood Cells (RBC): RBC's in urine can be caused by inflammation or injury to the kidneys or urinary tract.
Epithelial Cells: High concentrations of epithelial cells is typically caused by infection or inflammation of the urinary tract.
Crystals: Crystals may be formed by various particles which are dissolved in urine. Crystal formation may be due to an abnormal pH balance or a higher than normal concentration of particles. Crystals formed in the kidneys may lead to the development of kidney stones.
Casts: Casts are cylindrical particles formed from proteins secreted by the kidneys. In people with kidney disease, substances such as RBC's or WBC's may become trapped in the proteins. Examining the casts can help differentiate between types of kidney disorders.